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WhySomeCompaniesMaketheLeap.andOthersDon'tRANDOMHOUSEBUSINESSBOOKSAcknowledgmentsPrefaceixxiii1:GoodIstheEnemyofGreat12:Level5Leadership173:FirstWho.ThenWhat414:ConfronttheBrutalFacts(YetNeverLoseFaith)5:TheHedgehogConcept(SimplicitywithintheThreeCircles)6:ACultureofDiscipline7:TechnologyAccelerators8:TheFlywheelandtheDoomLoop9:FromGoodtoGreattoBuilttoLastEPILOGuE:FrequentlyAskedQuestionsResearchAppendicesNotesIndexCHAPTER1That'swhatmakesdeathsohard-unsatisfiedcuriosity.-BERYLMARKHAM,WestwiththeNight1odistheenemyofgreat.Andthatisoneofthekeyreasonswhywehavesolittlethatbecomesgreat.Wedon'thavegreatschools,principallybecausewehavegoodschools.Wedon'thavegreatgovernment,principallybecausewehavegoodgov-ernment.Fewpeopleattaingreatlives,inlargepartbecauseitisjustsoeasytosettleforagoodlife.Thevastmajorityofcompaniesneverbecomegreat,preciselybecausethevastmajoritybecomequitegood-andthatistheirmainproblem.Thispointbecamepiercinglycleartomein1996,whenIwashavingdinnerwithagroupofthoughtleadersgatheredforadiscussionaboutorganizationalperformance.BillMeehan,themanagingdirectoroftheSanFranciscoofficeofMcKinsey&Company,leanedoverandcasuallyconfided,"Youknow,Jim,weloveBuilttoLastaroundhere.Youandyourcoauthordidaveryfinejobontheresearchandwriting.Unfortu-nately,it'suseless."Curious,Iaskedhimtoexplain."Thecompaniesyouwroteaboutwere,forthemostpart,alwaysgreat,"hesaid."Theyneverhadtoturnthemselvesfromgoodcompaniesintogreatcompanies.TheyhadparentslikeDavidPackardandGeorgeMerck,whoshapedthecharacterofgreatnessfromearlyon.Butwhataboutthevastmajorityofcompaniesthatwakeuppartwaythroughlifeandrealizethatthey'regood,butnotgreat?"InowrealizethatMeehanwasexaggeratingforeffectwithhis"useless"comment,buthisessentialobservationwascorrect-thattrulygreatcom-2JimCollinsGoodtoGreat3panies,forthemostpart,havealwaysbeengreat.Andthevastmajorityofgoodcompaniesremainjustthat-good,butnotgreat.Indeed,Meehan'scommentprovedtobeaninvaluablegift,asitplantedtheseedofaques-tionthatbecamethebasisofthisentirebook-namely,Canagoodcom-panybecomeagreatcompanyand,ifso,how?Oristhediseaseof"justbeinggood"incurable?Fiveyearsafterthatfatefuldinnerwecannowsay,withoutquestion,thatgoodtogreatdoeshappen,andwe'velearnedmuchabouttheunderlyingvariablesthatmakeithappen.InspiredbyBillMeehan'schallenge,myresearchteamandIembarkedonafive-yearresearcheffort,ajourneytoexploretheinnerworkingsofgoodtogreat.Toquicklygrasptheconceptoftheproject,lookatthechartonpage2."Inessence,weidentifiedcompaniesthatmadetheleapfromgoodresultstogreatresultsandsustainedthoseresultsforatleastfifteenyears.Wecom-paredthesecompaniestoacarefullyselectedcontrolgroupofcomparisoncompaniesthatfailedtomaketheleap,oriftheydid,failedtosustainit.Wethencomparedthegood-to-greatcompaniestothecomparisoncom-paniestodiscovertheessentialanddistinguishingfactorsatwork.Thegood-to-greatexamplesthatmadethefinalcutintothestudyattainedextraordinaryresults,averagingcumulativestockreturns6.9timesthegeneralmarketinthefifteenyearsfollowingtheirtransitionpoints.2Toputthatinperspective,GeneralElectric(consideredbymanytobethebest-ledcompanyinAmericaattheendofthetwentiethcen-tury)outperformedthemarketby2.8timesoverthefifteenyears1985to2000.3Furthermore,ifyouinvestedinamutualfundofthegood-to-greatcompaniesin1965,holdingeachcompanyatthegeneralmarketrateuntilthedateoftransition,andsimultaneouslyinvestedinagen-eralmarketstockfund,yourinthegood-to-greatfundtakenoutonJanuary1,2000,wouldhavemultiplied471times,comparedtoa56foldincreaseinthemarket.4Theseareremarkablenumbers,madeallthemoreremarkablewhenyouconsiderthefactthattheycamefromcompaniesthathadpreviouslybeensoutterlyunremarkable.Considerjustonecase,Walgreens.Foroverfortyyears,Walgreenshadbumpedalongasaveryaveragecompany,moreorlesstrackingthegeneralmarket.Thenin1975,seeminglyoutofnowhere-bang!-Walgreensbegantoclinib.andclimb.and*Adescriptionofhowthechartsonpages2and4werecreatedappearsinchapter1notesattheendofthebook.4JimCollinsCumulativeStockReturnsofInvested,1965-2000Good-to-GreatCompanies:1DtrectComparson0Companes0197019761982198819942000Notes:1.dividedevenlyacrosscompaniesineachset,January1,1965.2.Eachcompanyheldatmarketrateofreturn,untiltransitiondate.3.CumulativevalueofeachfundshownasofJanuary1.2000.4.Dlvdendsreinvested,adjustedforallstocksplits.climb.andclimb.anditjustkeptclimbing.FromDecember31,1975,toJanuary1,2000,investedinWalgreensbeatinvestedintechnologysuperstarIntelbynearlytwotimes,GeneralElectricbynearlyfivetimes,Coca-Colabynearlyeighttimes,andthegeneralstockmarket(includingtheNASDAQstockrun-upattheendof1999)byoverfifteentimes.*Howonearthdidacompanywithsuchalonghistoryofbeingnothingspecialtransformitselfintoanenterprisethatoutperformedsomeofthebest-ledorganizationsintheworld?AndwhywasWalgreensabletomaketheleapwhenothercompaniesinthesameindustrywiththesameoppor-tunitiesandsimilarresources,suchasEckerd,didnotmaketheleap?Thissinglecasecapturestheessenceofourquest.ThisbookisnotaboutWalgreensperse,oranyofthespecificcompa-*Calculationsofstockreturnsusedthroughoutthisbookreflectthetotalcumulativereturntoaninvestor,dividendsreinvestedandadjustedforstocksplits.The"generalstockmarket"(oftenreferredtoassimply"themarket")reflectsthetotalityofstockstradedontheNewYorkExchange,AmericanStockExchange,andNASDAQ.Seethenotestochapter1fordetailsondatasourcesandcalculations.GoodtoGreat5nieswestudied.Itisaboutthequestion-Canagoodcompanybecomeagreatcompanyand,ifso,how?-andoursearchfortimeless,universalanswersthatcanbeappliedbyanyorganization.Thisbookisdedicatedtoteachingwhatwe'velearned.Theremainderofthisintroductorychaptertellsthestoryofourjourney,outlinesourresearchmethod,andpreviewsthekeyfindings.Inchapter2,welaunchheadlongintothefindingsthemselves,beginningwithoneofthemostprovocativeofthewholestudy:Level5leadership.UNDAUNTEDCURIOSITYPeopleoftenask,"Whatmotivatesyoutoundertakethesehugeresearchprojects?"It'sagoodquestion.Theansweris,"Curiosity."Thereisnoth-ingIfindmoreexcitingthanpickingaquestionthatIdon'tknowtheanswertoandembarkingonaquestforanswers.It'sdeeplysatisfyingtoclimbintotheboat,likeLewisandClark,andheadwest,saying,"Wedon'tknowwhatwe'llfindwhenwegetthere,butwe'llbesuretoletyouknowwhenwegetback."Hereistheabbreviatedstoryofthisparticularodysseyofcuriosity.Phase1:TheSearchWiththequestioninhand,Ibegantoassembleateamofresearchers.(WhenIuse"we"throughoutthisbook,Iamreferringtotheresearchteam.Inall,twenty-onepeopleworkedontheprojectatkeypoints,usu-allyinteamsoffourtosixatatime.)Ourfirsttaskwastofindcompaniesthatshowedthegood-to-greatpat-ternexemplifiedinthechartonpage2.Welaunchedasix-month"deathmarchoffinancialanalysis,"lookingforcompaniesthatshowedthefol-6limCollinslowingbasicpattern:fifteen-yearcumulativestockreturnsatorbelowthegeneralstockmarket,punctuatedbyatransitionpoint,thencumulativereturnsatleastthreetimesthemarketoverthenextfifteenyears.Wepickedfifteenyearsbecauseitwouldtranscendone-hitwondersandluckybreaks(youcan'tjustbeluckyforfifteenyears)andwouldexceedtheaveragetenureofmostchiefexecutiveofficers(helpingustoseparategreatcompaniesfromcompaniesthatjusthappenedtohaveasinglegreatleader).Wepickedthreetimesthemarketbecauseitexceedstheperformanceofmostwidelyacknowledgedgreatcompanies.Forper-spective,amutualfundofthefollowing"marquisset"ofcompaniesbeatthemarketbyonly2.5timesovertheyears1985to2000:3M,Boeing,Coca-Cola,GE,Hewlett-Packard,Intel,Johnson&Johnson,Merck,Motorola,Pepsi,Procter&Gamble,Wal-Mart,andWaltDisney.Notabadsettobeat.FromaninitialuniverseofcompaniesthatappearedontheFortune500intheyears1965to1995,wesystematicallysearchedandsifted,eventuallyfindingelevengood-to-greatexamples.(I'veputadetaileddescriptionofoursearchinAppendixl.A.)However,acoupleofpointsdeservebriefmentionhere.First,acompanyhadtodemonstratethegood-to-greatpat-ternindependentofitsindustry;ifthewholeindustryshowedthesamepat-tern,wedroppedthecompany.Second,wedebatedwhetherweshoulduseadditionalselectioncriteriabeyondcumulativestockreturns,suchasimpactonsocietyandemployeewelfare.Weeventuallydecidedtolimitourselectiontothegood-to-greatresultspattern,aswecouldnotconceiveofanylegitimateandconsistentmethodforselectingontheseothervari-ableswithoutintroducingourownbiases.Inthelastchapter,however,Iaddresstherelationshipbetweencorporatevaluesandenduringgreatcom-panies,butthefocusofthisparticularresearcheffortisontheveryspecificquestionofhowtoturnagoodorganizationintoonethatproducessus-tainedgreatresults.Atfirstglance,weweresurprisedbythelist.WhowouldhavethoughtthatFannieMaewouldbeatcompanieslikeGEandCoca-Cola?OrthatWalgreenscouldbeatIntel?Thesurprisinglist-adowdiergroupwouldbehardtofind-taughtusakeylessonrightupfront.Itispossibletoturngoodintogreatinthemostunlikelyofsituations.Thisbecamethefirstofmanysurprisesthatledustoreevaluateourthinkingaboutcorporategreatness.GoodtoGreat9Phase3:InsidetheBlackBoxWethenturnedourattentiontoadeepanalysisofeachcase.Wecol-lectedallarticlespublishedonthetwenty-eightcompanies,datingbackfiftyyearsormore.Wesystematicallycodedallthematerialintocate-gories,suchasstrategy,technology,leadership,andsoforth.Thenweinterviewedmostofthegood-to-greatexecutiveswhoheldkeypositionsofresponsibilityduringthetransitionera.Wealsoinitiatedawiderangeofqualitativeandquantitativeanalyses,lookingateverythingfromacquisi-tionstoexecutivecompensation,frombusinessstrategytocorporatecul-ture,fromlayoffstoleadershipstyle,fromfinancialratiostomanagementturnover.Whenallwassaidanddone,thetotalprojectconsumed10.5peopleyearsofeffort.Wereadandsystematicallycodednearly6,000arti-cles,generatedmorethan2,000pagesofinterviewtranscripts,andcre-ated384millionbytesofcomputerdata.(SeeAppendix1.Dforadetailedlistofallouranalysesandactivities.)Wecametothinkofourresearcheffortasakintolookinginsideablackbox.Eachstepalongthewaywaslikeinstallinganotherlightbulbtoshedlightontheinnerworkingsofthegood-to-greatprocess.Withdatainhand,webeganaseriesofweeklyresearch-teamdebates.Foreachofthetwenty-eightcompanies,membersoftheresearchteamandIwouldsystematicallyreadallthearticles,analyses,interviews,andtheresearchcoding.Iwouldmakeapresentationtotheteamonthatspe-cificcompany,drawingpotentialconclusionsandaskingquestions.Thenwewoulddebate,disagree,poundontables,raiseourvoices,pauseandlolimCollinsreflect,debatesomemore,pauseandthink,discuss,resolve,question,anddebateyetagainabout"whatitallmeans."Thecoreofourmethodwasasystematicprocessofcontrastingthegood-to-greatexamplestothecomparisons,alwaysasking,"What'sdiffer-ent?"Wealsomadeparticularnoteof"dogsthatdidnotbark."IntheSher-lockHolmesclassic"TheAdventureofSilverBlaze,"Holmesidentified"thecuriousincidentofthedoginthenight-time7'asthekeyclue.Itturnsoutthatthedogdidnothinginthenighttimeandthat,accordingtoHolmes,wasthecuriousincident,whichledhimtotheconclusionthattheprimesuspectmusthavebeensomeonewhoknewthedogwell.Inourstudy,whatwedidn'tfind-dogsthatwemighthaveexpectedtobarkbutdidn't-turnedouttobesomeofthebestcluestotheinnerwork-ingsofgoodtogreat.Whenwesteppedinsidetheblackboxandturnedonthelightbulbs,wewerefrequentlyjustasastonishedatwhatwedidnotseeaswhatwedid.Forexample:Larger-than-life,celebrityleaderswhorideinfromtheoutsidearenegativelycorrelatedwithtakingacompanyfromgoodtogreat.Tenofelevengood-to-greatCEOscamefrominsidethecompany,whereasthecomparisoncompaniestriedoutsideCEOssixtimesmoreoften.Wefoundnosystematicpatternlinkingspecificformsofexecutivecompensationtotheprocessofgoingfromgoodtogreat.Theideathatthestructureofexecutivecompensationisakeydriverincorpo-rateperformanceissimplynotsupportedbythedata.Strategypersedidnotseparatethegood-to-greatcompaniesfromthecomparisoncompanies.Bothsetsofcompanieshadwell-definedstrategies,andthereisnoevidencethatthegood-to-greatcompanies-spentmoretimeonlong-rangestrategicplannrjn&hat-j-----soncompanies.GoodtoGreat11Thegood-to-greatcompaniesdidnotfocusprincipallyonwhattodotobecome-great;theyfocusedequally--onwhatnottodoandwhgtostop---doing.-.Technologyandtechnology-drivenchangehasvirtuallynothingtodowithignitingatransformationfromgoodtogreat.Technologycan-accelerateatransformation,buttechnologycannotcauseatransfor-mation.---Mergersandacquisitionsplayvirtuallynoroleinignitingatransfor-mationfromgoodtogreat;twobigmediocritiesjoinedtogethernevermakeonegreatcompany.Thegood-to-greatcompaniespaidscantattentiontomanagingchange,motivatingpeople,orcreatingalignment.Undertherightconditions,theproblemsofcommitment,alignment,motivation,andchangelargelymeltaway.Thegood-to-greatcompanieshadnoname,tagline,launchevent,orprogramtosignifytheirtransformations.Indeed,somereportedbeingunawareofthemagnitudeofthetransformationatthetime;onlylater,inretrospect,diditbecomeclear.Yes,theyproducedatrulyrev-olutionaryleapinresults,butnotbyarevolutionaryprocess.Thegood-to-greatcompanieswerenot,byandlarge,ingreatindus-tries,andsomewereinterribleindustries.Innocasedowehaveacompanythatjusthappenedtobesittingonthenoseconeofarocketwhenittookoff.Greatnessisnotafunctionofcircumstance.Great-ness,itturnsout,islargelyamatterofconsciouschoice.Phase4:ChaostoConceptI'vetriedtocomeupwithasimplewaytoconveywhatwasrequiredtogofromallthedata,analyses,debates,and"dogsthatdidnotbarktothefinalfindingsinthisbook.ThebestanswerIcangiveisthatitwasanitgr-a$veDrocessofloopingbackandforth,developingideasandtestingthemagainstthe-data,revisingthe--ideas,building----.aframework,-v--seeingitircakundertheweightofevidence,andrebuildingit;yetagin.Thatprocesswasrepeatedoverandover,untileverythinghungtogetherinacoherentframeworkofconcepts.Weallhaveastrengthortwoinlife,andIsupposemineistheabilitytotakealumpofunorganizedinformation,seepat-terns,andextractorderfromthemess-to&r-chaostoconcept.Thatsaid,however,Iwishtounderscoreagainthattheconceptsinthefinalframeworkarenotmy"opinions."WhileIcannotextractmyown12limCollinspsychologyandbiasesentirelyfromtheresearch,eachfindinginthefinalframeworkmetarigorousstandardbeforetheresearchteamwoulddeemitsignificant.Everyprimaryconceptinthefinalframeworkshowedupasachangevariablein100percentofthegood-to-greatcompaniesandinlessthan30percentofthecomparisoncompaniesduringthepivotalyears.Anyinsightthatfailedthistestdidnotmakeitintothebookasachapter-levelconcept.Here,then,isanoverviewoftheframeworkofconceptsandapreviewofwhat'stocomeintherestofthebook.(Seethediagrambelow.)Thinkofthetransformationasaprocessofbuildupfollowedbybreakthrough,brokenintothreebroadstages:dmkedpeople,disciplinedthought,anddisciplinedaction.Withineachofthesethreestages,therearetwokeyconcepts,shownintheframeworkanddescribedbelow.Wrappingaroundthisentireframeworkisaconceptwecametocalltheflywheel,whichcapturesthegestaltoftheentireprocessofgoingfromgoodtogreat.Level5Leadership.Weweresurprised,shockedreally,todiscoverthetypeofleadershiprequiredforturningagoodcompanyintoagreatone.Comparedtohigh-profileleaderswithbigpersonalitieswhomakehead-linesandbecomecelebrities,thegood-to-greatleadersseemtohavecomefromMars.Self-effacing,quiet,reserved,evenshy-theseleadersarea1GoodtoGreat13paradoxicalblendofpersonalhumilityandprofessionalwill.TheyaremorelikeLincolnandSocratesthanPattonorCaesar.FirstWho.ThenWhat.Weexpectedthatgood-to-greatleaderswouldbeginbysettinganewvisionandstrategy.Wefoundinsteadthattheyfirstgottherightpeopleonthebus,thewrongpeopleoffthebus,andtherightpeopleintherightseats-andthentheyfiguredoutwheretodriveit.Theoldadage"Peopleareyourmostimportantasset"turnsouttobewrong.Peoplearenotyourmostimportantasset.Therightpeopleare.-----IPCp*;wConfidhttheBrutalFacts(YetNeverLoseFaith).Welearnedthatafor-merprisonerofwarhadmoretoteachusaboutwhatittakestofindapathtogreatnessthanmostbooksoncorporatestrategy.Everygood-to-great3,companyembracedwhatwecametocalltheStockdaleParadox:Youmustmaintainunwaveringfaiththatyoucanandwillprevailintheend,regard-lessofthedifficulties,ANDatthesametimehavethedisciplinetocon-frontthemostbrutalfactsofyourcurrentreality,whatevertheymightbe.TheHedgehogConcept(SimplicitywithintheThreeCircles).Togofromgoodtogreatrequirestran%e&n"Checurseofcompetence.Justbecausesomethingisyourcorebusiness-justbecauseyou'vebeendoingitforyearsorperhapsevendecades-doesnotnecessarilymeanyoucanbethebestintheworldatit.Andifyoucannotbethebestintheworldatyourco 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